ZnAl LDH-based Derivative Materials as Photocatalysts: Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Performance in Tetracycline Degradation

Rohmatullaili, Nur Ahmad, Desti Erviana, Zultriana, Dila Savira, Risfidian Mohadi, Aldes Lesbani


Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH)-derived materials exhibited different characteristics from LDH precursors. The conversion of ZnAl LDH into its derivative material has been carried out to find the best catalyst for TC degradation. ZnAl (LDH)-based catalysts in this study have been effectively synthesized using coprecipitation, calcination, and restacking procedures. ZnAl Layered Double Oxide (LDO) is derived from the calcination of ZnAl LDH at 500°C. ZnAl LDH was also modified by adding Garcinia mangostana pericarp extract (GME). XRD, FT-IR, UV-DRS, and SEM-EDX were used to investigate the synthesized catalyst. ZnAl LDH exhibited the typical LDH FT-IR spectra, whereas ZnAl LDO showed metal oxide-like spectra, and the ZnAl-GME composite displayed the combination spectra of precursor material. The ZnAl LDH XRD diffraction pattern exhibited the attributes of a layered material, whereas the other three catalysts did not. Calcination destroyed the layered structure of ZnAl LDH, whereas the addition of GME to LDH and LDO generated a single-layered composite. The modified ZnAl-GME composite showed a decrease in both particle size and bandgap energy. At an ideal pH of 5, the synthesized catalyst was used in a batch system photodegradation of 5 mg/L Tetracycline (TC), employing solar light irradiation. ZnAl LDO holds the most significant catalytic activity and structural stability through the fifth regeneration cycle, degraded TC up to 100% in 90 minutes.


Abed, M. F. and A. A. Faisal (2023). Calcium/Iron-Layered Double Hydroxides-Sodium Alginate for Removal of Tetracycline Antibiotic from Aqueous Solution. Alexandria Engineering Journal, 63; 127–142

Ahmad, N., F. S. Arsyad, I. Royani, and A. Lesbani (2023a). Charcoal Activated As Template Mg/Al Layered Double Hydroxide for Selective Adsorption of Direct Yellow on Anionic Dyes. Results in Chemistry, 5; 100766

Ahmad, N., F. S. Arsyad, I. Royani, P. M. S. B. N. Siregar, T. Taher, and A. Lesbani (2023b). High Regeneration of ZnAl/NiAl-Magnetite Humic Acid for Adsorption of Congo Red from Aqueous Solution. Inorganic Chemistry Communications, 150; 110517

Ahmed, M. A., M. A. Ahmed, and A. A. Mohamed (2023). Adsorptive Removal of Tetracycline Antibiotic onto Magnetic Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Modified with Polyvinylpyrroilidone. Reactive and Functional Polymers, 191; 105701

Ajiboye, T. O., L. Saunyama, M. Ravele, A. A. Rasheed-Adeleke, N. Seheri, D. C. Onwudiwe, and S. D. Mhlanga (2023). Synthesis Approaches to Ceramic Membranes, Their Composites, and Application in the Removal of Tetracycline from Water. Environmental Advances, 12; 100371

Aladpoosh, R. and M. Montazer (2022). Functionalization of Cellulose Fibers Alongside Growth of 2D LDH Platelets through Urea Hydrolysis Inspired Taro Wettability. Carbohydrate Polymers, 275; 118584

Aminah, L. N., S. Leong, C. Ho, Y. Wong, and C. Kairulazam (2014). Characterization of Garcinia mangostana Linn. Seeds As Potential Feedstocks for Biodiesel Production. International Journal of Engineering and Technology, 6(2); 146

Angasa, E., Y. E. Putri, N. Jamarun, and S. Arief (2020). Improving the Morphological, Optical, and Photocatalytic Properties of Octahedral Zn2SNO4 Using Garcinia mangostana Fruit Peel Extract. Vacuum, 182; 109719

Ariza-Tarazona, M. C., J. F. Villarreal-Chiu, J. M. HernándezLópez, J. R. De la Rosa, V. Barbieri, C. Siligardi, and E. I. Cedillo-González (2020). Microplastic Pollution Reduction by a Carbon and Nitrogen-Doped TiO2: Effect of pH and Temperature in the Photocatalytic Degradation Process. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 395; 122632

Asadpour, S., N. Sarmast, Z. Aramesh-Boroujeni, and N. Sadegh (2023). Enhanced Adsorption Performance of Tetracycline in Aqueous Solutions Using Mg-Al-LDH/AC Nanocomposite. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 16(12); 105301

Azalok, K. A., A. A. Oladipo, and M. Gazi (2021). Hybrid MnFe-LDO–Biochar Nanopowders for Degradation of Metronidazole Via UV-Light-Driven Photocatalysis: Characterization and Mechanism Studies. Chemosphere, 268; 128844

Boukhalfa, N., M. Boutahala, and N. Djebri (2017). Synthesis and Characterization of ZnAl Layered Double Hydroxide and Organo-K10 Montmorillonite for the Removal of Diclofenac from Aqueous Solution. Adsorption Science & Technology, 35(1-2); 20–36

Cong, C. Q., N. M. Dat, N. D. Hai, N. T. H. Nam, H. An, T. Do Dat, N. T. Dat, M. T. Phong, and N. H. Hieu (2023). Green Synthesis of Carbon-Doped Zinc Oxide Using Garcinia mangostana Peel Extract: Characterization, Photocatalytic Degradation, and Hydrogen Peroxide Production. Journal of Cleaner Production, 392; 136269

Des, K. (2022). Factors Affecting Microbial Degradation. Global Science Research Journals, 10(2); 1–2

Desgagnés, A. and M. C. Iliuta (2023). Intensification of CO2 Hydrogenation by In-Situ Water Removal Using Hybrid Catalyst-Adsorbent Materials: Effect of Preparation Method and Operating Conditions on the RWGS Reaction As a Case Study. Chemical Engineering Journal, 454; 140214

Devi, S. K., V. Thirumal, A. Balamurugan, B. Avula, U. D. Pongiya, J. Kim, and C. Surya (2023). Photocatalytic Degradation of Tetracycline Over Ternary NiCOMn-LDH under Visible Light Illumination. Materials Letters, 350; 134910

Ezhilarasi, A. A., J. J. Vijaya, K. Kaviyarasu, L. J. Kennedy, R. J. Ramalingam, and H. A. Al-Lohedan (2018). Green Synthesis of NiO Nanoparticles Using Aegle Marmelos Leaf Extract for the Evaluation of In-Vitro Cytotoxicity, Antibacterial and Photocatalytic Properties. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 180; 39–50

Faisal, S., H. Jan, S. A. Shah, S. Shah, A. Khan, M. T. Akbar, M. Rizwan, F. Jan, Wajidullah, and N. Akhtar (2021). Green Synthesis of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Nanoparticles Using Aqueous Fruit Extracts of Myristica Fragrans: Their Characterizations and Biological and Environmental Applications. ACS Omega, 6(14); 9709–9722

Gao, B., J. Zhou, H. Wang, G. Zhang, J. He, Q. Xu, N. Li, D. Chen, H. Li, and J. Lu (2019). Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework 8-Derived Au@ ZnO for Efficient and Robust Photocatalytic Degradation of Tetracycline. Chinese Journal of Chemistry, 37(2); 148–154

Gholami, P., A. Heidari, A. Khataee, and M. Ritala (2023). Oxygen and Nitrogen Plasma Modifications of ZnCuCO LDH-Graphene Nanocomposites for Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production and Antibiotic Degradation. Separation and Purification Technology, 325; 124706

Gholami, P., A. Khataee, R. D. C. Soltani, L. Dinpazhoh, and A. Bhatnagar (2020). Photocatalytic Degradation of Gemifloxacin Antibiotic Using Zn-CO-LDH@Biochar Nanocomposite. Journal of
Hazardous Materials, 382; 121070

Ghuzali, N. A. M., M. A. A. C. M. Noor, F. A. Zakaria, T. S. Hamidon, and M. H. Husin (2021). Study on Clitoria ternatea Extracts Doped Sol-Gel Coatings for the Corrosion Mitigation of Mild Steel. Applied Surface Science Advances, 6; 100177

Gu, Y.-Y., Z. Wu, Y. Shen, C. Lu, L. Lu, Z. Bian, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, R. Fu, and H. Li (2023). Efficient Fenton-Like Degradation of Tetracycline by Stalactite-Like CuCO-LDO/CN Catalysts: The Overlooked Contribution of Dissolved Oxygen. Chemosphere, 338; 139540

Hanifah, Y., R. Mohadi, and A. Lesbani (2023a). Photocatalytic Degradation of Rhodamine-B by Ni/Zn LDH Intercalated Polyoxometalate Compound. Science and Technology Indonesia, 8(1); 93-99

Hanifah, Y., R. Mohadi, and A. Lesbani (2023b). Polyoxometalate Intercalated MgAl-Layered Double Hydroxide for Degradation of Malachite Green. Ecological Engineering & Environmental Technology, 24(2); 109–119

Hao, T., H. Xu, S. Sun, H. Yu, Q. Qin, B. Song, M. Li, G. Shao, B. Fan, and H. Wang (2024). Assembling Flower-Like MgAl-LDH Nanospheres and g-C3N4 Nanosheets for High Efficiency Removal of Methyl Orange. Ceramics International, 50(7); 10724–10734

Isnaeni, I. N., D. Sumiarsa, and I. Primadona (2021). Green Synthesis of Different TiO2 Nanoparticle Phases Using Mango-Peel Extract. Materials Letters, 294; 129792

Jubu, P. R., O. Obaseki, A. Nathan-Abutu, F. Yam, Y. Yusof, and M. Ochang (2022). Dispensability of the Conventional Tauc’s Plot for Accurate Bandgap Determination from UV–Vis Optical Diffuse Reflectance Data. Results in Optics, 9; 100273

Kah, M., S. Beulke, and C. D. Brown (2007). Factors Influencing Degradation of Pesticides in Soil. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55(11); 4487–4492

Kameda, T., K. Horikoshi, H. Kikuchi, F. Kitagawa, S. Kumagai, Y. Saito, M. Kondo, Y. Jimbo, and T. Yoshioka (2021). Kinetic and Equilibrium Analyses of Lactate Adsorption by Cu-Al and Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxides (Cu-Al LDH and Mg-Al LDH) and Cu-Al and Mg-Al Layered Double Oxides (Cu-Al LDO and Mg-Al LDO). Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects, 25; 100656

Katwal, R., R. Kothari, and D. Pathania (2021). An Overview on Degradation Kinetics of Organic Dyes by Photocatalysis Using Nanostructured Electrocatalyst. Elsevier

Lee, D.-E., M. Danish, and W.-K. Jo (2024). Two in One is Really Better: NiAl-LDH/[CoNi (μ3-tp) 2 (μ2-py) 2] Nanocomposite for Enhanced Antibiotic Norfloxacin Degradation and H2 Evolution Reaction. Separation and Purification Technology, 332; 125748

Lesbani, A., T. Taher, N. R. Palapa, R. Mohadi, A. Rachmat, and Mardiyanto (2020). Preparation and Utilization of Keggin-Type Polyoxometalate Intercalated Ni–Fe Layered Double Hydroxides for Enhanced Adsorptive Removal of Cationic Dye. SN Applied Sciences, 2(3); 1–4

Li, H., Z. Zhu, C. Hu, J. Zheng, and B. Liu (2023a). Preparation of S-Scheme Heterojunction Bi28O32 (SO4) 10/NiAl LDH for Efficient Photocatalytic Degradation of Tetracycline. Advanced Powder Technology, 34(7); 104066

Li, J., H. Cao, H. Qi, Y. Li, S. Zhu, X. Ye, J. Zhang, Z. Yu, J. Zhu, and X. Zhao (2023b). Efficiently Activating Peroxymonosulfate by CoFe-LDHs/MoS2 for Rapid Degradation of Tetracycline. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 53; 103856

Li, Q., H. Cao, F.-F. Chen, and Y. Yu (2023c). Boosting Charge Transfer of NiAl-LDH by Silicate Nanosheets for Enhanced Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction. Materials Letters, 351; 135101

Li, Z., H. Li, X. Zeng, S. Liu, and Y. Yang (2023d). Adsorption and Photodegradation of Tetracycline by Mannose-Grafted Chitosan Composite Films: Performance, Mechanism and Availability. Chemical Engineering Journal, 458; 141455

Mo, W., Y. Yang, C. He, Y. Huang, and J. Feng (2023). Excellent Adsorption Properties of Mg/Al/Fe LDOs for Cr (VI) in Water. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 11(5); 111069

Momin, Z. H., G. K. R. Angaru, L. P. Lingamdinne, J. R. Koduru, and Y.-Y. Chang (2023). Highly Efficient Cd (II) Removal from Groundwater Utilizing Layered Mixed Metal Oxides-Graphitic Carbon Nitride Composite with Improved Cycling Stability. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 56; 104276

Muráth, S., N. Dvorníková, D. Moreno-Rodríguez, R. Novotny, M. Pospíšil, M. Urbanová, J. Brus, and ` F. Kovanda (2023). Intercalation of Atorvastatin and Valsartan into MgAl Layered Double Hydroxide Host Using a Restacking Procedure. Applied Clay Science, 231; 106717

Oladipo, A. A. (2021). Rapid Photocatalytic Treatment of High-Strength Olive Mill Wastewater by Sunlight and UVInduced CuCr2O4@ CaFe–LDO. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 40; 101932

Otgonbayar, Z. and W.-C. Oh (2023). Bandgap Energy Controlling of Quaternary Metal Sulfide Graphene-ZnO Ternary Nanocomposite for Photocatalytic Reduction of CO2. Separation and Purification Technology, 324; 124522

Palapa, N. R. and A. Wijaya (2023). Layered Double Hydroxide Coated by Carbon-Based Material for Environmental Dye Pollutant. Indonesian Journal of Material Research, 1(3); 84–90

Pan, C., W. Wang, Y. Zhang, J. C. Nam, F. Wu, Z. You, J. Xu, and J. Li (2023). Porous Graphitized Carbon-Supported FeOCl As a Bifunctional Adsorbent-Catalyst for the Wet Peroxide Oxidation of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds: Effect of Mesopores and Mechanistic Study. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 330; 122659

Prabhu, S., T. D. Thangadurai, P. V. Bharathy, and P. Kalugasalam (2022a). Synthesis and Characterization of Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles Using Clitoria Ternatea Flower Extract: Photocatalytic Dye Degradation under Sunlight and Antibacterial Activity Applications. Results in Chemistry, 4; 100285

Prabhu, S., T. D. Thangadurai, T. Indumathi, and P. Kalugasalam (2022b). Enhanced Visible Light Induced Dye Degradation and Antibacterial Activities of ZnO/NiO Nanocomposite Synthesized Using Clitoria ternatea Flower Extract. Inorganic Chemistry Communications, 146; 110077

Rahayua, H. A. and S. Yamtinaha (2018). Effect of Extraction Method for Mangosteen Skin (Garcinia mangostana L.) on the Efficiency as a Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). page 14–27

Rohmatullaili, N. Ahmad, D. Erviana, D. Savira, R. Mohadi, and A. Lesbani (2024). Enhancing the Performance of Modified ZnAl LDH As Hybrid Catalyst-Adsorbent on Tetracycline Removal under Solar Light Irradiation. Inorganic Chemistry Communications, 161; 112101

Samrot, A. V., E. N. Michael, D. A. Anand, J. L. Mercy, G. S. Sabesan, B. K. Mohanty, S. Visvanathan, and S. Saigeetha (2022). The Utilization of Garcinia mangostana Fibers for the Removal of Crystal Violet Dye. Materials Today: Proceedings, 59; 1550–1554

Shen, J.-C., H.-Y. Zeng, C.-R. Chen, and S. Xu (2020). A Facile Fabrication of Ag2O-Ag/ZnAl-Oxides with Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Performance for Tetracycline Degradation. Applied Clay Science, 185; 105413

Silaen, L., N. R. Palapa, Elfita, R. Mohadi, and A. Lesbani (2021). Intercalated Zn-Cr-[α-SiW12O40] as Removal Agents of Cobalt (II) in Watery Phase: Adsorption and Regeneration Study. Chiang Mai Journal of Science, 48(2); 545–556

Silva-Osuna, E., A. Vilchis-Nestor, R. Villarreal-Sanchez, A. Castro-Beltran, and P. Luque (2022). Study of the Optical Properties of TiO2 Semiconductor Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Salvia Rosmarinus and Its Effect on Photocatalytic Activity. Optical Materials, 124; 112039

Siregar, P. M. S. B. N., N. R. Palapa, A. Wijaya, E. S. Fitri, and A. Lesbani (2021). Structural Stability of Ni/Al Layered Double Hydroxide Supported on Graphite and Biochar toward Adsorption of Congo Red. Science and Technology Indonesia, 6(2); 85–95

Song, Z., H. Gao, G. Liao, W. Zhang, and D. Wang (2022). A Novel Slag-Based Ce/TiO2@ LDH Catalyst for Visible Light Driven Degradation of Tetracycline: Performance and Mechanism. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 901; 163525

Sun, C., Y. Wang, L. Wu, J. Hu, X. Long, H. Wu, and F. Jiao (2022). In Situ Preparation of Novel P–N Junction Photocatalyst MgAl-LDH/(BiO)2CO3 for Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Tetracycline. Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, 150; 106939

Tajat, N., W. El Mouhri, W. El Hayaoui, I. Nadif, A. Idlahcen, I. Bakas, M. Badreddine, M. Tamimi, A. Assabbane, and S. Qourzal (2024). Facile Synthesis of Ag2CO3/Ag2O@NiFe LDH Nanohetrostructure with Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance for MB Dye Degradation under Visible Light Irradiation. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 681; 132789

Vasseghian, Y., D. Sezgin, D. C. Nguyen, H. Y. Hoang, and M. S. Yilmaz (2023). A Hybrid Nanocomposite Based on CuFe Layered Double Hydroxide Coated Graphene Oxide for Photocatalytic Degradation of Trimethoprim. Chemosphere, 322; 138243

Villegas-Fuentes, A., H. Garrafa-Gálvez, R. Quevedo-Robles, M. Luque-Morales, A. Vilchis-Nestor, and P. Luque (2023). Synthesis of Semiconductor ZnO Nanoparticles Using Citrus Microcarpa Extract and the Influence of Concentration on Their Optical Properties. Journal of Molecular Structure, 1281; 135067

Wang, G., D. Li, S. Wang, Z. Zhao, S. Lv, and J. Qiu (2021). Ternary NiFeMn Layered Metal Oxide (LDO) Compounds for Capacitive Deionization Defluoridation: The Unique Role of Mn. Separation and Purification Technology, 254; 117667

Wang, M., J. Wang, M. Li, X. Wang, Y. Sima, and Q. Wu (2022a). Novel In2S3/Zn–Al LDHs Composite As an Efficient Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalyst for Tetracycline Degradation. Optical Materials, 128; 112376

Wang, R., X. Ren, and W. Guo (2023a). CeO2@ LDH Decorated 3D Porous Module with Mortise Tenon Structure: Activation of Peroxymonosulfate for Ultrafast Removal of Tetracycline. Journal of Cleaner Production, 428; 139452

Wang, Y., T. Liu, Y. Xie, N. Li, Y. Liu, J. Wen, M. Zhang, W. Feng, J. Huang, and Y. Guo (2022b). Clitoria ternatea Blue Petal Extract Protects against Obesity, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation Induced by a High-Fat, High-Fructose Diet in C57BL/6 Mice. Food Research International, 162; 112008

Wang, Y., X. Lu, P. Wang, S. Wu, Q. Wang, N. Hu, X. Liu, and L. Wang (2023b). In Situ Confinement of PdO within Zeolite As Robust Adsorbent/catalyst for Toluene Elimination. Separation and Purification Technology, 327; 124913

Xin Lee, K., K. Shameli, M. Miyake, N. Kuwano, N. B. Bt Ahmad Khairudin, S. E. Bt Mohamad, and Y. P. Yew (2016). Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Aqueous Extract of Garcinia mangostana Fruit Peels. Journal of Nanomaterials, 2016; 1–7

Xu, K., Z. Zhu, C. Hu, J. Zheng, H. Peng, and B. Liu (2023a). Fabrication of Unconventional S Scheme NiAl LDH/Ag6Si2O7 Heterojunction Photocatalysts: Outstanding Photocatalytic Performance and Photocatalytic Mechanism for Tetracycline Degradation. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 674; 131806

Xu, X., X. Zeng, C. Zhang, R. Huang, and W. Ding (2023b). Enhanced Electrocatalytic Removal of Tetracycline Using Dual Carbon Material Combined Particle Electrodes in a Three-Dimensional Electrochemical System: Degradation Pathway and Mechanism. Journal of Cleaner Production, 419; 138257

Yang, X., Y. Li, F. Kong, X. Sun, S. Wang, and Y. Cui (2022). Effect of ZnFe-LDHs Modified Oyster Shell on the Removal of Tetracyclines Antibiotics and Variation of Tet Genes in Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands. Chemical Engineering Journal, 431; 134093

Yang, Z., S. Peng, H. Wang, Z. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Sun, Z. Xu, and G. Guo (2023). Enhanced Catalytic Activity for CO Esterification to Dimethyl Oxalate Via Increasing Lewis Basic Sites in Pd/MgAl LDO Catalyst. Catalysis Communications, 184; 106781

Yasir, B., D. Purwaningsih, N. R. Rumata, N. Wahyuddin, M. A. AR, N. Hikmah, and N. F. Rahman (2022). Application Chemometrics-Assisted Fingerprinting Profiling of Extract Variation from Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) Using FTIR Method. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Sciences, 6(2); 50–53

Ye, H., S. Liu, D. Yu, X. Zhou, L. Qin, C. Lai, F. Qin, M. Zhang, W. Chen, and W. Chen (2022). Regeneration Mechanism, Modification Strategy, and Environment Application of Layered Double Hydroxides: Insights Based on Memory Effect. Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 450; 214253

Yuliasari, N., A. Wijaya, R. Mohadi, E. Elfita, and A. Lesbani (2022). Photocatalytic Degradation of Malachite Green by Layered Double Hydroxide Based Composites. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 17(2); 240–249

Zahara, Z. A., L. Silaen, N. Normah, N. Juleanti, and N. R. Palapa (2023). Layered Double Hydroxide Zn/M3+ (M3+= Al and Cr) as Highly Efficient Adsorbent of Heavy Metal Pb(II). Indonesian Journal of Material Research, 1(1); 8–14

Zheng, X., Y. Dong, and Q. Zhu (2020). Enhanced Photocatalysis of MgAl Layered Double Oxide Nanosheets with B, N-Codoped Carbon Coating for Tetracycline Removal. Applied Clay Science, 193; 105694

Zhu, J., J. Wang, J. He, and L. Hu (2023). Fabrication of CdS/ZnCr-LDH Heterojunctions with Enhanced of Tetracycline Hydrochloride Photocatalytic Degradation under Visible Light. Optical Materials, 136; 113456


rohmatullaili_uin@radenfatah.ac.id (Primary Contact)
Nur Ahmad
Desti Erviana
Dila Savira
Risfidian Mohadi
Aldes Lesbani
Author Biographies

Rohmatullaili, Doctoral Program, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Sriwijaya, Palembang, 30139, Indonesia

1Doctoral Program, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Sriwijaya, Palembang, 30139, Indonesia

2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, UIN Raden Fatah Palembang, Palembang, 30252, Indonesia

Nur Ahmad, Research Center of Inorganic Materials and Complexes, Universitas Sriwijaya, Palembang, 30139, Indonesia

1Doctoral Program, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Sriwijaya, Palembang, 30139, Indonesia

4Research Center of Inorganic Materials and Complexes, Universitas Sriwijaya, Palembang, 30139, Indonesia

Risfidian Mohadi, Magister of Material Science, Graduate Program, Universitas Sriwijaya, Palembang, 30139, Indonesia

1Doctoral Program, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Sriwijaya, Palembang, 30139, Indonesia

4Research Center of Inorganic Materials and Complexes, Universitas Sriwijaya, Palembang, 30139, Indonesia

Aldes Lesbani, Magister of Material Science, Graduate Program, Universitas Sriwijaya, Palembang, 30139, Indonesia

1Doctoral Program, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Sriwijaya, Palembang, 30139, Indonesia

3Magister of Material Science, Graduate Program, Universitas Sriwijaya, Palembang, 30139, Indonesia

4Research Center of Inorganic Materials and Complexes, Universitas Sriwijaya, Palembang, 30139, Indonesia

Rohmatullaili, Ahmad, N., Erviana, D., Zultriana, Savira, D., Mohadi, R., & Lesbani, A. (2024). ZnAl LDH-based Derivative Materials as Photocatalysts: Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Performance in Tetracycline Degradation. Science and Technology Indonesia, 9(2), 457–469. https://doi.org/10.26554/sti.2024.9.2.457-469

Article Details

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 > >>