Kinetics of Homogeneous Reaction of Potassium Methoxide Based on K2CO3 Catalyst in Transesterification of RBDPO to Biodiesel

Yosirham Abdu Salam, Leily Nurul Komariah, Fitri Hadiah, Susila Arita


Biodiesel production is generally catalyzed by potassium methylate or sodium methylate catalysts based on KOH and NaOH and these catalysts are still imported. The search for a cheap and effective catalyst continues to be carried out by researchers. One of the catalyst support materials currently in use involves impregnating K2CO3 with various substances, resulting in a heterogeneous catalyst. In this study, it was tried to use K2CO3 dissolved in methanol to produce a homogeneous potassium methylate catalyst. Potassium methylate-based homogeneous catalyst K2CO3-methanol is proven to have a very high function in the transesterification reaction of Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO) into biodiesel, this is evidenced by the use of a catalyst percentage of 2% w and 30% w methanol to the weight of RBDPO resulting in an acid content in biodiesel of only 0.12% and a total glycerol of 0.124% in reaction time 3 hours, with the purity of the methyl ester in biodiesel reaching 98.80%. Meanwhile, for the calculation of homogeneous reaction kinetics, a reaction rate equation is produced where the order of the RBDPO transesterification reaction is order 2 (two) and the reaction rate constant is 0.0044.


Arita, S. (2009). Proses Pembuatan Biodiesel di dalam Reaktor Unggun Diam (Fixed Bed Reactor) dengan Katalis Padat Alumina Berbasis Logam. Proceedings of the 2009 National Fuel Cycle Seminar Serpong, 13; 1693–4687 (in Indonesia)

Cao, Y., H. A. Dhahad, H. Esmaeili, and M. Razavi (2022). MgO@Cnt@K2CO3 As a Superior Catalyst for Biodiesel Production from Waste Edible Oil Using Two-step Transesterification Process. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 161; 136–146

Chanakaewsomboon, I., K. Phoungthong, A. Palamanit, V. Seechamnanturakit, and C. K. Cheng (2021). Biodiesel Produced Using Potassium Methoxide Homogeneous Alkaline Catalyst: Effects of Various Factors on Soap Formation. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, 13(10); 1–11

Darnoko, D. and M. Cheryan (2000). Kinetics of Palm Oil Transesterification in a Batch Reactor. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 77; 1263–1267

Farobie, O. and Y. Matsumura (2017). State of the Art of Biodiesel Production under Supercritical Conditions. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 63; 173–203

Fessenden, J. and S. Fessenden (1986). Organic Chemistry Third Edition. Jakarta: Erlangga

Foroutan, R., R. Mohammadi, J. Razeghi, and B. Ramavandi (2021). Biodiesel Production from Edible Oils Using Algal Biochar/CaO/K2CO3 As a Heterogeneous and Recyclable Catalyst. Renewable Energy, 168; 1207–1216

Junior, E. G. S., O. R. Justo, V. H. Perez, F. da Silva Melo, I. Reyero, A. Serrano-Lotina, and F. J. Mompean (2020). Biodiesel Synthesis Using a Novel Monolithic Catalyst with Magnetic Properties (k2CO3/γ-Al2O3/sepiolite/γ-Fe2O3) by Ethanolic Route. Fuel, 271; 117650

Junior, E. G. S., V. H. Perez, I. Reyero, A. Serrano Lotina, and O. R. Justo (2019). Biodiesel Production from Heterogeneous Catalysts Based K2CO3 Supported on Extruded γ-Al2O3. Fuel, 241; 311–318

Knothe, G. and L. F. Razon (2017). Biodiesel Fuels. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 58; 36–59

Kowthaman, C. (2020). Synthesis and Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes from Engine Soot and Its Application As an Additive in Schizochytrium Biodiesel Fuelled Dici Engine. Energy Reports, 6; 2126–2139

Levenspiel, O. (1998). Chemical Reaction Engineering. Wiley

Liu, H., L. Su, F. Liu, C. Li, and U. U. Solomon (2011). Cinder Supported K2CO3 as Catalyst for Biodiesel Production. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 106(3-4); 550–558

Malins, K. (2018). The Potential of K3PO4, K2CO3, Na3PO4 and Na2CO3 as Reusable Alkaline Catalysts for Practical Application in Biodiesel Production. Fuel Processing Technology, 179; 302–312

Munawar, A., R. Manurung, et al. (2020). Biodiesel Synthesis from Refined Bleached and Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO) by Transesterification Using Durian Shell Based Carbon Modified with Koh As Heterogeneous Catalyst. IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 725(1); 012063

Rodiah, S., D. Erviana, F. Rahman, and A. W. Budaya (2020). Modified CaO Catalyst from Golden Snail Shell (Pomacea canaliculata) for Transesterification Reaction of Used Cooking Oil. Al-Kimia, 8(1)

Salmasi, M. Z., M. Kazemeini, and S. Sadjadi (2020). Transesterification of Sunflower Oil to Biodiesel Fuel Utilizing a Novel K2CO3/Talc Catalyst: Process Optimizations and Kinetics Investigations. Industrial Crops and Products, 156; 112846

Sibarani, J., S. Khairi, Y. Yoeswono, K. Wijaya, and I. Tahir (2007). Effect of Palm Empty Bunch Ash on Transesterification of Palm Oil into Biodiesel. Indonesian Journal of Chemistry, 7(3); 314–319

Taslim, Iriany, O. Bani, S. Parinduri, and P. Ningsih (2018). Biodiesel Production from Rice Bran Oil by Transesterification Using Heterogeneous Catalyst Natural Zeolite Modified with K2CO3
. IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 309; 012107

Thinnakorn, K. and J. Tscheikuna (2014). Biodiesel Production Via Transesterification of Palm Olein Using Sodium Phosphate As a Heterogeneous Catalyst. Applied Catalysis A: General, 476; 26–33

Tonetto, G. M. and J. M. Marchetti (2010). Transesterification of Soybean Oil Over Me/Al2O3 (Me= Na, Ba, Ca, and K) Catalysts and Monolith K/Al2O3-Cordierite. Topics in Catalysis, 53; 755–762

Turnip, J. R., T. F. Tarigan, and M. S. Sinaga (2017). Pengaruh Massa Katalis dan Waktu Reaksi pada Pembuatan Biodiesel dari Limbah Minyak Jelantah dengan Menggunakan Katalis Heterogen K2O dari Limbah Kulit Kakao. Jurnal Teknik Kimia USU, 6(2); 24–29 (in Indonesia)


Yosirham Abdu Salam
Leily Nurul Komariah
Fitri Hadiah
Susila Arita (Primary Contact)
Salam, Y. A. ., Komariah, L. N. ., Hadiah, F. ., & Arita, S. . (2024). Kinetics of Homogeneous Reaction of Potassium Methoxide Based on K2CO3 Catalyst in Transesterification of RBDPO to Biodiesel. Science and Technology Indonesia, 9(1), 28–35.

Article Details