Study of Anthocyanin Extraction from Red Banana (Musa sapientum L. var Rubra) Waste and Characteristics of Light Effects

Yessy Rosalina, Endang Warsiki, Anas Miftah Fauzi, Illah Sailah


Anthocyanins are compounds responsible for plants’ blue, purple, violet, magenta, red, and orange colours. Anthocyanins are found in tropical fruits. Generally, anthocyanins are found in the peel tissues of plants. The increasing interest in anthocyanins, especially in the field of food and health, supports the development of anthocyanin exploration research. One of the uses of anthocyanins that are widely developed today is the addition of anthocyanins as indicators in smart packaging. For application on the packaging, in addition to extraction techniques, it is also necessary to assess the characteristics of anthocyanins in the environment. This study aims to examine the anthocyanin potential of red banana waste and the effect of light on anthocyanin stability. The anthocyanins observed are the result of anthocyanin extraction from the red banana peel and bracts using the maceration method. The solvent used is water acidified with citric acid. The study results showed that the total anthocyanin content in red banana bracts extract was higher than in extract from red banana peel. A concentrated extract from the bracts of a red banana contains 114.26 μg/g FW of total anthocyanins. In comparison, the concentrated extract of red banana peel contains 110.27 μg/g FW of total anthocyanins. Identification of concentrated extracts of red banana peel and flower through FTIR test, maximum wavelength test with UV-Vis and discolouration test showed that the extract contains anthocyanin compounds. Irradiation with a 25-watt bulb lamp, UV lamp and sunlight on concentrated extracts of the red banana peel and bracts showed degraded anthocyanin content. The results of this study show that the peel and flower of red bananas have the potential to be developed as a source of anthocyanins.


Adu, R. E. Y., G. Gelyaman, and M. Kabosu (). Pemanfaatan Ekstrak Antosianin dari Limbah Kulit Bawang Merah (Allium cepa) sebagai Zat Pemeka (Sensitizer) pada Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). ALCHEMY Jurnal Penelitian Kimia, 18(1); 103–111 (in Indonesia)

Andretta, R., C. L. Luchese, I. C. Tessaro, and J. C. Spada (2019). Development and Characterization of pH Indicator Films Based on Cassava Starch and Blueberry Residue by Thermocompression. Food Hydrocolloids, 93; 317–324

Arisanti, C. I. S., C. B. A. C. Sukawati, I. G. N. J. A. Prasetia, and I. M. A. G. Wirasuta (2020). Stability of Anthocyanins Encapsulated from Purple Sweet Potato Extract Affected by Maltodextrin Concentration. Macromolecular Symposia, 391; 1900127

Aurelia, S. W., L. S. Abirrania, and T. a. Hariyadi (2021). Penentuan Tingkat Kematangan Biji Kopi Berdasarkan Kandungan Antosianin Ditinjau Dari DAA dan Warna Kulit Buah Kopi. Prosiding Industrial Research Workshop and National Seminar, 12; 140–144 (in Indonesia)

Bakhshayeshi, M., M. Khayami, R. Heidari, and R. Jamei (2006). The Effects of Light, Storage Temperature, pH and Variety on Stability of Anthocyanin Pigments in Four Malus Varieties. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 9(3); 428–433

Bąkowska, A., A. Z. Kucharska, and J. Oszmiański (2003). The Effects of Heating, UV Irradiation, and Storage on Stability of the Anthocyanin–Polyphenol Copigment Complex. Food Chemistry, 81(3); 349–355

Begum, Y. and S. Deka (2017). Stability of Spray-Dried Microencapsulated Anthocyanins Extracted from Culinary Banana Bract. International Journal of Food Properties, 20(12); 3135–3148

Boo, H. O., S. J. Hwang, C. S. Bae, S. H. Park, B. G. Heo, and S. Gorinstein (2012). Extraction and Characterization of Some Natural Plant Pigments. Industrial Crops and Products, 40; 129–135

Castañeda-Ovando, A., M. de Lourdes Pacheco-Hernández, M. E. Páez-Hernández, J. A. Rodríguez, and C. A. Galán-Vidal (2009). Chemical Studies of Anthocyanins: A Review. Food Chemistry, 113(4); 859–871

Fu, X., S. Cheng, Y. Liao, B. Huang, B. Du, W. Zeng, Y. Jiang, X. Duan, and Z. Yang (2018). Comparative Analysis of Pigments in Red and Yellow Banana Fruit. Food Chemistry, 239; 1009–1018

Furtado, P., P. Figueiredo, H. C. das Neves, and F. Pina (1993). Photochemical and Thermal Degradation of Anthocyanidins. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 75(2); 113–118

Giusti, M. M., L. E. Rodríguez-Saona, and R. E. Wrolstad (1999). Molar Absorptivity and Color Characteristics of Acylated and Non-Acylated Pelargonidin-Based Anthocyanins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 47(11); 4631–4637

Giusti, M. M. and R. E. Wrolstad (2001). Characterization and Measurement of Anthocyanins by UV-Visible Spectroscopy. Current Protocols in Food Analytical Chemistry, (1); F1–2

Hendry, G. (1996). Natural Pigments in Biology. Natural Food Colorants. Springer; 1–39

Horbowicz, M., R. Kosson, A. Grzesiuk, and H. Debski (2008). Anthocyanins of Fruits and Vegetables-Their Occurrence, Analysis and Role in Human Nutrition. Vegetable Crops Research Bulletin, 68; 5

Jiang, G., X. Hou, X. Zeng, C. Zhang, H. Wu, G. Shen, S. Li, Q. Luo, M. Li, X. Liu (2020). Preparation and Characterization of Indicator Films from CarboxymethylCellulose/Starch and Purple Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) lam) Anthocyanins for Monitoring Fish Freshness. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 143; 359–372

Kasrina, K. and A. Q. Zulaikha (2013). Pisang Buah (Musa Spp): Keragaman dan Etnobotaninya Pada Masyarakat di Desa Sri Kuncoro Kecamatan Pondok Kelapa Kabupaten Bengkulu Tengah. Prosiding SEMIRATA 2013, 1(1); 33–40 (in Indonesia)

Khoo, H. E., A. Azlan, S. T. Tang, and S. M. Lim (2017). Anthocyanidins and Anthocyanins: Colored Pigments as Food, Pharmaceutical Ingredients, and the Potential Health Benefits. Food & Nutrition Research, 61(1); 1361779

Kibria, A. A., M. Kamrunnessa, M. Rahman, and A. Kar (2019). Extraction and Evaluation of Phytochemicals from Banana Peels (Musa sapientum) and Banana Plants (Musa paradisiaca). Substance, 10; 13

Kitdamrongsont, K., P. Pothavorn, S. Swangpol, S. Wongniam, K. Atawongsa, J. Svasti, and J. Somana (2008). Anthocyanin Composition of Wild Bananas in Thailand. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(22); 10853–10857

Kwartiningsih, E., A. Prastika, and D. L. Triana (2016). Ekstraksi dan Uji Stabilitas Antosianin dari Kulit Buah Naga Super Merah (Hylocereus costaricensis). Seminar Nasional Teknik Kimia Kejuangan; 6

Lestari, P. D. A., L. P. Wrasiati, and N. P. Suwariani (2019). Karakteristrik Enkapsulat Ekstrak Pewarna Fungsional Bunga Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) pada Perlakuan Perbandingan Kasein-Maltodekstrin. Jurnal Rekayasa dan Manajemen Agroindustri ISSN, 2503; 488X (in Indonesia)

Lestario, L. N., M. K. W. C. Yoga, and A. I. Kristijanto (2014). Anthocyanin Stability of Banana Bract (Musa paradisiaca L) Toward Light for Jelly Colorant). Agritech, 34(4); 374–381

Li, Y., Y. Ying, Y. Zhou, Y. Ge, C. Yuan, C. Wu, and Y. Hu (2019). A pH-Indicating Intelligent Packaging Composed of Chitosan-Purple Potato Extractions Strength by SurfaceDeacetylated Chitin Nanobers. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 127; 376–384

Lim, T. K. (2012). Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants, Volume 1. Springer

Markakis, P. (1982). Anthocyanins as Food Additives.

Markaris, P., G. E. Livingston, and C. R. Fellers (1957). Quantitative Aspects of Strawberry Pigment Degradation a, b. Journal of Food Science, 22(2); 117–130

Martín, J., M. J. Navas, A. M. Jiménez-Moreno, and A. G. Asuero (2017). Anthocyanin Pigments: Importance, Sample Preparation and Extraction. Phenolic Compounds-Natural Sources, Importance and Applications; 117-152

Meganingtyas, W. and M. Alauhdin (2021). Ekstraksi Antosianin dari Kulit Buah Naga (Hylocereus costaricensis) dan Pemanfaatannya sebagai Indikator Alami Titrasi Asam-Basa. Agritech, 41(3); 278–284 (in Indonesia)

Mohammadi, X., G. Matinfar, R. Mandal, A. Singh, G. Fiutak, D. Kitts, and A. P. Singh (2022). Kinetics of Anthocyanin Condensation Reaction in Model Wine Solution Under Pulsed Light Treatment. Food Chemistry; 134600

Moradi, M., H. Tajik, H. Almasi, M. Forough, and P. Ezati (2019). A Novel pH-sensing Indicator Based on Bacterial Cellulose Nanofibers and Black Carrot Anthocyanins for Monitoring Fish Freshness. Carbohydrate Polymers, 222; 115030

Moradinezhad, F., M. Khayyat, and Z. Maraki (2018). Changes in Anthocyanin and Fruit Quality Attributes of Barberry (Berberis vulgaris L.) Grown in Dierent Altitude During Growth and Maturation. Journal of Agricultural Sciences–Sri Lanka, 13(3)

Narayanan, M., S. Shanmugam, and P. M. Suresh (2018). Physical Properties of Microencapsulated Anthocyanin Obtained by Spray Drying of Red Amaranthus Extract with Maltodextrin. Malaysian Journal of Nutrition, 24(1); 139–147

Neldawati, N., Ratnawulan, and Gusnedi (2013). Analisis Nilai Absorbansi Dalam Penentuan Kadar Flavonoid untuk Berbagai Jenis Daun Tanaman Obat. Pillar of Physics, 2(1); 76–83 (in Indonesia)

Nurhalimah, R., I. N. Kundera, D. Tureni, et al. (2019). Uji Kandungan Karbohidrat Pada Buah Pisang Kultivar Pisang Kepok (Musa paradisiaca L.) Pada Tingkat Kematangan dan Olahan yang Berbeda. Journal of Biology Science and Education, 7(2); 463–468 (in Indonesia)

Nurtiana, W. (2019). Anthocyanin as Natural Colorant: A Review. Food ScienTech Journal, 1(1); 1–7

Patras, A., N. P. Brunton, C. O’Donnell, and B. K. Tiwari (2010). Effect of Thermal Processing on Anthocyanin Stability in Foods; Mechanisms and Kinetics of Degradation. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 21(1); 3–11

Pazmiño-Durán, E. A., M. M. Giusti, R. E. Wrolstad, and M. B. A. Glória (2001). Anthocyanins from Banana Bracts (Musa X paradisiaca) as Potential Food Colorants. Food Chemistry, 73(3); 327–332

Peralta, J., C. M. Bitencourt-Cervi, V. B. Maciel, C. M. Yoshida, and R. A. Carvalho (2019). Aqueous Hibiscus Extract as a Potential Natural pH Indicator Incorporated in Natural Polymeric Films. Food Packaging and Shelf Life, 19; 47–55

Pina, F. (2014). Chemical Applications of Anthocyanins and Related Compounds. A Source of Bioinspiration. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62(29); 6885–6897

Rakkimuthu, R., S. Palmurugan, and A. Shanmugapriya (2016). Effect of Temperature, Light, pH on the Stability of Anthocyanin Pigments in Cocculus Hirsutus Fruits. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Modern Education, 2(2); 91–96

Rosalina, Y., E. Warsiki, and A. Fauzi (2022). The Potential of Anthocyanin from Red Banana Peel as Natural Dye in Smart Packaging Development. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 1063; 012019

Sani, A., A. Ahmad, and F. Zenta (2018). Eect Of Metal Ion Cu (Ii) And Mg (Ii) on the Activities Antioxidant Anthocyanin of Extract Ethanol Skin Dragon Fruit Red (Hylocereus polyrhizus). Indonesia Chimica Acta; 11–20

Santos-Buelga, C., N. Mateus, and V. De Freitas (2014). Anthocyanins. Plant Pigments and Beyond. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62(29); 6879–6884

Simmonds, N. (1954). Anthocyanins in Bananas. Annals of Botany, 18(4); 471–482

Skoog, D., F. Holler, and S. Crouch (2018). Principles of Instrumental Analysis. Boston. MA: Cengage Learning; 16–19

Sujithra, S. and T. Manikkandan (2019). Extraction of Anthocyanin from Banana (Musa paradisiaca) Flower Bract and Analysis of Phytochemicals, Antioxidant Activities and Anthocyanin Content. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 12; 102–104

Surianti, S., H. Husain, and S. Sulfikar (2019). Uji Stabilitas Pigmen Merah Antosianin dari Daun Jati Muda (Tectona grandis Linn f) terhadap pH sebagai Pewarna Alami. Chemica: Jurnal Ilmiah Kimia Dan Pendidikan Kimia, 20(1); 94–101 (in Indonesia)

Swer, T. L., C. Mukhim, K. Bashir, and K. Chauhan (2018). Optimization of Enzyme Aided Extraction of Anthocyanins from Prunus nepalensis L. Lwt, 91; 382–390

Tensiska, E. S. and D. Natalia (2006). Ekstraksi Pewarna Alami dari Buah Arben (Rubus idaeus (Linn.)) dan Aplikasinya Pada Sistem Pangan. Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan, 18(1); 25–31 (in Indonesia)

Wakano, D., D. E. Sahertian, and T. Telussa (2020). Analisis Nilai Proksimat Kulit Buah Pisang Tongka Langit (Musa troglodytarum L.) Pada Beberapa Tingkat Kematangan Buah. AGRITEKNO: Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian, 9(2); 58–63 (in Indonesia)

Wu, H. Y., K. M. Yang, and P. Y. Chiang (2018). Roselle Anthocyanins: Antioxidant Properties and Stability to Heat and pH. Molecules, 23(6); 1357

Yang, Y., X. Yuan, Y. Xu, and Z. Yu (2015). Purification of Anthocyanins from Extracts of Red Raspberry using Macroporous Resin. International Journal of Food Properties, 18(5); 1046–1058


Yessy Rosalina
Endang Warsiki (Primary Contact)
Anas Miftah Fauzi
Illah Sailah
Rosalina, Y. ., Warsiki, E. ., Fauzi, A. M. ., & Sailah, I. . (2022). Study of Anthocyanin Extraction from Red Banana (Musa sapientum L. var Rubra) Waste and Characteristics of Light Effects. Science and Technology Indonesia, 7(4), 522–529.

Article Details