Chitosan–Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Cryogel for Glucose Biosensor Development

Amin Fatoni, Vonia Febriana Hidayah, Suyata Suyata, Hartiwi Diastuti, Mekar Dwi Anggraeni


Chitosan was widely used as a supporting material for enzyme immobilization. However, the non-conductive properties of chitosan could be a severe problem in the application of biosensors with electrochemical detection. This research aimed to modify the chitosan cryogel with Fe3O4 nanoparticles for glucose biosensor application. The glucose biosensor used glucose oxidase enzyme as biological sensing element which was immobilized on the working electrode of electrochemical detection. Chitosan-Fe3O4 composite cryogel was used as supporting material for glucose oxidase immobilization. The detection optimization was also performed by varying the operating conditions such as buffer pH and reaction temperature. The result showed the optimum conditions were the addition of Fe3O4 nanoparticles for 4% (w/v), phosphate buffer solution of 100 mM with pH of 7.0, and reaction temperature at 25°C. The glucose determination showed linearity for increasing oxidation peak and decreasing reduction peak with the glucose concentration, with regression equation of y = -6.804x – 104.32 and y = 4.5872x + 133.37 respectively. Furthermore, the limit of detection and limit of quantification for oxidation peaks were 0.38 mM and 1.25 mM respectively. The reduction peak showed a limit of detection of 0.32 mM and a limit of quantification of 1.07 mM.


Agrin, F. P., Z. L. Wildan, T. Grace, H. Ari, M. Mujamilah, and A. Budi (2016). Sintesis dan Pencirian Nanopartikel Fe3O4 dalam Hidrogel Kitosan. Majalah Polimer Indonesia, 19(1); 23–39 (in Indonesia)

Aini, B. N., S. Siddiquee, K. Ampon, K. F. Rodrigues, and S. Suryani (2015). Development of Glucose Biosensor Based on ZnO Nanoparticles Film and Glucose Oxidase-immobilized Eggshell Membrane. Sensing and Bio Sensing Research, 4; 46–56

Ba-Abbad, M. M., A. Benamour, D. Ewis, A. W. Mohammad, and E. Mahmoudi (2022). Synthesis of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles with Different Shapes Through a Co-Precipitation Method and Their Application. JOM, 74(9); 3531–3539

Cheng, H., S. Wei, Y. Ji, J. Zhai, X. Zhang, J. Chen, and C. Shen (2019). Synergetic Effect of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles and Carbon on Flexible Poly (Vinylidence Fluoride) Based Films with Higher Heat Dissipation to Improve Electromagnetic Shielding. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 121; 139–148

Fatoni, A., A. Numnuam, P. Kanatharana, W. Limbut, C. Thammakhet, and P. Thavarungkul (2013). A Highly Stable Oxygen-independent Glucose Biosensor Based on a Chitosan-albumin Cryogel Incorporated with Carbon Nanotubes and Ferrocene. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 185; 725–734

Fatoni, A., A. Numnuam, P. Kanatharana, W. Limbut, and P. Thavarungkul (2014). A Novel Molecularly Imprinted Chitosan-acrylamide, Graphene, Ferrocene Composite Cryogel Biosensor used to Detect Microalbumin. Analyst, 139(23); 6160–6167

Fatoni, A., A. Wijonarko, M. D. Anggraeni, D. Hermawan, and H. Diastuti (2021). Alginate NiFe2O4 Nanoparticles Cryogel for Electrochemical Glucose Biosensor Development. Gels, 7(4); 272

Ganapathe, L. S., M. A. Mohamed, R. Mohamad Yunus, and D. D. Berhanuddin (2020). Magnetite (Fe3O4) Nanoparticles in Biomedical Application: From Synthesis to Surface Functionalisation. Magnetochemistry, 6(4); 68

Han, C., J. Ma, H. Wu, and K. Hu (2015). A Low-cost and High-yield Production of Magnetite Nanorods with High Saturation Magnetization. Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society, 60(1); 2799–2802

Hashim, A., I. R. Agool, and K. J. Kadhim (2018). Novel of (Polymer Blend-Fe3O4) Magnetic Nanocomposites: Preparation and Characterization for Thermal Energy Storage and Release, Gamma Ray Shielding, Antibacterial Activity and Humidity Sensors Applications. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 29(12); 10369–10394

Kim, D. S., X. Yang, J. H. Lee, H. Y. Yoo, C. Park, S. W. Kim, and J. Lee (2022). Development of GO/Co/Chitosan Based Nano-Biosensor for Real-Time Detection of D-Glucose. Biosensors, 12(7); 464

Koesnarpadi, S., S. J. Santosa, D. Siswanta, and B. Rusdiarso (2015). Synthesis and Characterizatation of Magnetite Nanoparticle Coated Humic Acid (Fe3O4/HA). Procedia Environmental Sciences, 30; 103–108

Laurent, S., D. Forge, M. Port, A. Roch, C. Robic, L. Vander Elst, and R. N. Muller (2008). Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Stabilization, Vectorization, Physicochemical Characterizations, and Biological Applications. Chemical Reviews, 108(6); 2064–2110

Lipińska, W., K. Siuzdak, J. Karczewski, A. Dołęga, and K. Grochowska (2021). Electrochemical Glucose Sensor Based on the Glucose Oxidase Entrapped in Chitosan Immobilized onto Laser-processed Au-Ti Electrode. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 330; 129409

Liu, X., M. D. Kaminski, Y. Guan, H. Chen, H. Liu, and A. J. Rosengart (2006). Preparation and Characterization of Hydrophobic Superparamagnetic Magnetite Gel. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 306(2); 248–253

Luo, X. L., J. J. Xu, Y. Du, and H. Y. Chen (2004). A Glucose Biosensor Based on Chitosan-glucose Oxidase-gold Nanoparticles Biocomposite Formed by One-step Electrodeposition. Analytical Biochemistry, 334(2); 284–289

Marroquin, J. B., K. Y. Rhee, and S. J. Park (2013). Chitosan Nanocomposite Films: Enhanced Electrical Conductivity, Thermal Stability, and Mechanical Properties. Carbohydrate Polymers, 92(2); 1783–1791

Mascolo, M. C., Y. Pei, and T. A. Ring (2013). Room Temperature Co-precipitation Synthesis of Magnetite Nanoparticles in a Large pH Window with Different Bases. Materials, 6(12); 5549–5567

Mürbe, J., A. Rechtenbach, and J. Töpfer (2008). Synthesis and Physical Characterization of Magnetite Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications. Materials Chemistry and Physics, 110(2-3); 426–433

Petcharoen, K. and A. Sirivat (2012). Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetite Nanoparticles via the Chemical Co-precipitation Method. Materials Science and Engineering: B, 177(5); 421–427

Ramesan, M., P. Jayakrishnan, T. Manojkumar, and G. Mathew (2018). Structural, Mechanical and Electrical Properties Biopolymer Blend Nanocomposites Derived from Poly (Vinyl Alcohol)/Cashew Gum/Magnetite. Materials Research Express, 5(1); 015308

Ravikumar, C. and R. Bandyopadhyaya (2011). Mechanistic Study on Magnetite Nanoparticle Formation by Thermal Decomposition and Coprecipitation Routes. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 115(5); 1380–1387

Samanman, S., A. Numnuam, W. Limbut, P. Kanatharana, and P. Thavarungkul (2015). Highly-sensitive Label-free Electrochemical Carcinoembryonic Antigen Immunosensor Based on a Novel Au Nanoparticles graphene-chitosan Nanocomposite Cryogel Electrode. Analytica Chimica Acta, 853; 521–532

Sezen, S., V. K. Thakur, and M. M. Ozmen (2021). Highly Effective Covalently Crosslinked Composite Alginate Cryogels for Cationic Dye Removal. Gels, 7(4); 178

World Health Organization (2016). Global Report on Diabetes: Executive Summary. World Health Organization, Geneva

Wulandari, E. W., S. Rotnoatmodjo, and N. Salama (2022). Diabetes Mellitus and Mortality among COVID-19 Patients in Jakarta, March-August 2020. Kesmas: Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional (National Public Health Journal), 17(2); 157–164

Zhang, D., H. Chen, and R. Hong (2019). Preparation and Conductive and Electromagnetic Properties of Fe3O4/PANI Nanocomposite via Reverse in Situ Polymerization. Journal of Nanomaterials, 2019; 7962754

Zou, R., S. Shan, L. Huang, Z. Chen, T. Lawson, M. Lin, L. Yan, and Y. Liu (2019). High-performance Intraocular Biosensors from Chitosan-functionalized Nitrogen containing Graphene for the Detection of Glucose. ACS Biomaterials Science and Engineering, 6(1); 673–679


Amin Fatoni (Primary Contact)
Vonia Febriana Hidayah
Suyata Suyata
Hartiwi Diastuti
Mekar Dwi Anggraeni
Fatoni, A., Hidayah, V. F., Suyata, S., Diastuti, H., & Anggraeni, M. D. (2023). Chitosan–Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Cryogel for Glucose Biosensor Development. Science and Technology Indonesia, 8(1), 52–58.

Article Details

Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.