Activated Hydrochar Prepared from Longan Fruit (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) Peel via Hydrothermal Carbonization-NaOH Activation for Cationic Dyes Removal

Neza Rahayu Palapa, Alfan Wijaya, Nur Ahmad, Amri Amri, Risfidian Mohadi, Aldes Lesbani


Hydrothermal carbonization is recognized as a method of processing biomass into carbon-rich products due to its energy-saving and environmental-friendly advantages. In this study, two types of hydrochar were prepared from Longan Fruit (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) Peel via hydrothermal carbonization at temperatures of 190°C and 250°C and activated using NaOH (HC-ACT 190 and HC-ACT 250) for removal of malachite green (MG) and rhodamine B (RhB) dyes. The maximum capacity for MG dye removal using HC-ACT 190 and HC-ACT 250 materials was 172.414 mg/g and 250 mg/g, while for RhB dye was 111.111 mg/g and 151.515 mg/g, respectively. The optimum pH was obtained at pH 6 for MG and pH 3 for RhB with adsorption equilibrium time occurring at 90 minutes. The kinetic study shows that the adsorption process follows pseudo-second-order kinetics, while the isotherm model was determined by the Langmuir isotherm model. Materials can be reused effectively for at least 3 cycles with an adsorption percentage of MG dye removal using HC-ACT 190 and HC-ACT 250 materials was 69.91% and 83.15% respectively, while for RhB dye was 35.79% and 55.6% respectively. The material is more selective on MG dye compared to RhB dye based on the selectivity test on the adsorption of the dye mixture.


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Neza Rahayu Palapa
Alfan Wijaya
Nur Ahmad
Amri Amri
Risfidian Mohadi
Aldes Lesbani (Primary Contact)
Palapa, N. R., Wijaya, A., Ahmad, N., Amri, A., Mohadi, R., & Lesbani, A. (2023). Activated Hydrochar Prepared from Longan Fruit (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) Peel via Hydrothermal Carbonization-NaOH Activation for Cationic Dyes Removal. Science and Technology Indonesia, 8(3), 461–470.

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