Activated Hydrochar Prepared from Longan Fruit (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) Peel via Hydrothermal Carbonization-NaOH Activation for Cationic Dyes Removal

Neza Rahayu Palapa, Alfan Wijaya, Nur Ahmad, Amri Amri, Risfidian Mohadi, Aldes Lesbani


Hydrothermal carbonization is recognized as a method of processing biomass into carbon-rich products due to its energy-saving and environmental-friendly advantages. In this study, two types of hydrochar were prepared from Longan Fruit (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) Peel via hydrothermal carbonization at temperatures of 190°C and 250°C and activated using NaOH (HC-ACT 190 and HC-ACT 250) for removal of malachite green (MG) and rhodamine B (RhB) dyes. The maximum capacity for MG dye removal using HC-ACT 190 and HC-ACT 250 materials was 172.414 mg/g and 250 mg/g, while for RhB dye was 111.111 mg/g and 151.515 mg/g, respectively. The optimum pH was obtained at pH 6 for MG and pH 3 for RhB with adsorption equilibrium time occurring at 90 minutes. The kinetic study shows that the adsorption process follows pseudo-second-order kinetics, while the isotherm model was determined by the Langmuir isotherm model. Materials can be reused effectively for at least 3 cycles with an adsorption percentage of MG dye removal using HC-ACT 190 and HC-ACT 250 materials was 69.91% and 83.15% respectively, while for RhB dye was 35.79% and 55.6% respectively. The material is more selective on MG dye compared to RhB dye based on the selectivity test on the adsorption of the dye mixture.


Adekola, F. A., S. B. Ayodele, and A. A. Inyinbor (2019). Efficient Rhodamine B Removal Using Acidand Alkaline-activated Musa paradisiaca Biochar. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 28(5); 3063–3070

Ahmad, N., F. S. Arsyad, I. Royani, P. M. S. B. N. Siregar, T. Taher, and A. Lesbani (2023). High Regeneration of ZnAl/NiAl-Magnetite Humic Acid for Adsorption of Congo Red from Aqueous Solution. Inorganic Chemistry Communications, 150; 110517

Akkari, I., L. Spessato, Z. Graba, N. Bezzi, and M. M. Kaci (2023). A Sustainably Produced Hydrochar from Pomegranate Peels for the Purification of Textile Contaminants in an Aqueous Medium. Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy, 31; 100924

Amri, A., A. Lesbani, and R. Mohadi (2023). Malachite Green Dye Adsorption from Aqueous Solution Using a Ni/Al Layered Double Hydroxide-Graphene Oxide Composite Material. Science and Technology Indonesia, 8(2); 280–287

Baytar, O., Ö. Şahin, and A. Ekinci (2023). Effect of Environmentally Friendly and Efficient Metal free Hydrochars as Catalysts on Sodium Borohydride Hydrolysis. Fuel, 346; 128308

Ben, S. K., S. Gupta, K. K. Raj, and V. Chandra (2023). Adsorption of Malachite Green from Polyaniline Facilitated Cobalt Phosphate Nanocomposite from Aqueous Solution. Chemical Physics Letters, 820; 140469

Chen, Y., S.-A. Huang, K. Yu, J.-Z. Guo, Y.-X. Wang, and B. Li (2023). Adsorption of Lead Ions and Methylene Blue on Acrylate-modified Hydrochars. Bioresource Technology, 379; 129067

Chowdhury, M. F., C.-M. Kim, and A. Jang (2023). High-efficient and Rapid Removal of Anionic and Cationic Dyes Using a Facile Synthesized Sole Adsorbent NiAlFe-layered Triple Hydroxide (LTH). Chemosphere, 332; 138878

Czerwińska, K., A. Marszałek, E. Kudlek, M. Śliz, M. Dudziak, and M. Wilk (2023). The Treatment of Post-processing Liquid from the Hydrothermal Carbonization of Sewage Sludge. Science of The Total Environment, 885; 163858

da Silva Andrade, J. G., C. E. Porto, W. M. Moreira, V. R. Batistela, and M. H. N. O. Scaliante (2023). Production of Hydrochars from Pinus caribaea for Biosorption of Methylene Blue and Tartrazine Yellow Dyes. Cleaner Chemical Engineering, 5; 100092

Deepak, K., S. Mohan, P. Dinesha, and R. Balasubramanian (2023). CO2 Uptake by Activated Hydrochar Derived from Orange Peel (Citrus reticulata): Influence of Carbonization Temperature. Journal of Environmental Management, 342; 118350

Du, B., L. Chai, Y. Wang, X. Wang, X. Chen, J. Zhou, and R.-C. Sun (2023). Fabrication of Demethylated Lignin-based Micro-particle for Efficient Adsorption of Malachite Green from Aqueous Solution. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 382; 121935

Eltaweil, A., H. A. Mohamed, E. M. Abd El-Monaem, and G. El-Subruiti (2020). Mesoporous Magnetic Biochar Composite for Enhanced Adsorption of Malachite Green Dye: Characterization, Adsorption Kinetics, Thermodynamics and Isotherms. Advanced Powder Technology, 31(3); 1253–1263

Ercan, B., K. Alper, S. Ucar, and S. Karagoz (2023). Comparative Studies of Hydrochars and Biochars Produced from Lignocellulosic Biomass via Hydrothermal Carbonization, Torrefaction and Pyrolysis. Journal of the Energy Institute; 101298

Giri, B. S., R. K. Sonwani, S. Varjani, D. Chaurasia, T. Varadavenkatesan, P. Chaturvedi, S. Yadav, V. Katiyar, R. S. Singh, and A. Pandey (2022). Highly Efficient Bio-adsorption of Malachite Green Using Chinese Fan-Palm Biochar (Livistona chinensis). Chemosphere, 287; 132282

Huang, Z., L. Shi, Y. Muhammad, and L. Li (2021). Effect of Ionic Liquid Assisted Hydrothermal Carbonization on the Properties and Gasification Reactivity of Hydrochar Derived from Eucalyptus. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 586; 423–432

Jais, F. M., C. Y. Chee, Z. Ismail, and S. Ibrahim (2021). Experimental Design via NaOH Activation Process and Statistical Analysis for Activated Sugarcane Bagasse Hydrochar for Removal of Dye and Antibiotic. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 9(1); 104829

Khairy, G. M., A. M. Hesham, H. E. S. Jahin, S. A. El-Korashy, and Y. M. Awad (2022). Green Synthesis of a Novel Eco-friendly Hydrochar from Pomegranate Peels Loaded with Iron Nanoparticles for the Removal of Copper Ions and Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solutions. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 368; 120722

Kohzadi, S., N. Marzban, J. A. Libra, M. Bundschuh, and A. Maleki (2023). Removal of RhB from Water by Fe-modified Hydrochar and Biochar–An Experimental Evaluation Supported by Genetic Programming. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 369; 120971

Li, Y., M. Wu, J. Wu, Y. Wang, Z. Zheng, and Z. Jiang (2022). Mechanistic Insight and Rapid Co adsorption of Nitrogen Pollution from Micro-polluted Water Over MgAl-layered Double Hydroxide Composite Based on Zeolite. Separation and Purification Technology, 297; 121484

Liu, Y., D. Zhong, Y. Xu, H. Chang, L. Dong, Z. Han, J. Li, and N. Zhong (2023). Adsorption of Phosphate in Water by La/Al Bimetallic-organic Frameworks-chitosan Composite with Wide Adaptable pH Range. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering; 110309

Nazir, M. A., T. Najam, S. Jabeen, M. A. Wattoo, M. S. Bashir, S. S. A. Shah, and A. ur Rehman (2022). Facile Synthesis of Tri-metallic Layered Double Hydroxides (NiZnAl-LDHs): Adsorption of Rhodamine-B and Methyl Orange from Water. Inorganic Chemistry Communications, 145; 110008

Sanchez-Silva, J. M., V. H. Collins-Martínez, E. PadillaOrtega, A. Aguilar-Aguilar, G. J. Labrada Delgado, O. Gonzalez-Ortega, G. Palestino-Escobedo, and R. Ocampo-Pérez (2022). Characterization and Transformation of Nanche Stone (Byrsonima crassifolia) in an Activated Hydrochar with High Adsorption Capacity towards Metformin in Aqueous Solution. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 183; 580–594

Sun, S., E. Yu, R. Hu, Y. Li, and Z. Wei (2023). Synthesis and Study of Poly (Phthalic Anhydride-???? -cyclodextrin) for the Efficient Adsorption of Cationic Dyes from Industrial Wastewater. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 194; 768–778

Van Tran, T., D. T. C. Nguyen, P. S. Kumar, A. T. M. Din, A. S. Qazaq, and D.-V. N. Vo (2022). Green Synthesis of Mn3O4 Nanoparticles Using Costus woodsonii Flowers Extract for Effective Removal of Malachite Green Dye. Environmental Research, 214; 113925

Vigneshwaran, S., P. Sirajudheen, P. Karthikeyan, and S. Meenakshi (2021). Fabrication of Sulfur doped Biochar Derived from Tapioca Peel Waste with Superior Adsorption Performance for the Removal of Malachite Green and Rhodamine B Dyes. Surfaces and Interfaces, 23; 100920

Wijaya, A., P. M. S. B. N. Siregar, A. F. Badri, N. R. Palapa, A. Amri, N. Ahmad, and A. Lesbani (2023). Modified Layered Double Hydroxide Mg/M3+ (M3+= Al and Cr) Using Metal Oxide (Cu) as Adsorbent for Methyl Orange and Methyl Red Dyes. Periodica Polytechnica Chemical Engineering, 67(2); 173–184

Wu, W., C. Wu, G. Zhang, J. Liu, Y. Li, and G. Li (2023). Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetic K2CO3-activated Carbon Produced from Bamboo Shoot for the Adsorption of Rhodamine B and CO2 Capture. Fuel, 332; 126107

Xie, D., J. Huang, Z. Wang, W. Hu, C. Liu, D. Wang, X. Li, and Y. Qiao (2023). Activated Carbon Derived from Hydrochar of Food Waste for Supercapacitor: Effect of Components on Electrochemical Performance. Fuel Processing Technology, 244; 107691

Yabalak, E. and F. Elneccar (2022). Evaluation of Watermelon Peel, Banana Peel and Bay Leaves Hydrochars as Green Catalysts in the Degradation of Malachite Green by Thermally Activated Persulfate Oxidation Method. Journal of Environmental Management, 304; 114311

Yang, J., Q. Wei, D. Li, J. Yu, and Z. Cai (2023a). Study on Adsorption Performance of Manganese Titanium Oxide Composite Biochar for Removal of Rhodamine B. Journal of the Indian Chemical Society, 100(4); 100958

Yang, J., Z. Zhang, J. Wang, X. Zhao, Y. Zhao, J. Qian, and T. Wang (2023b). Pyrolysis and Hydrothermal Carbonization of Biowaste: A Comparative Review on the Conversion Pathways and Potential Applications of Char Product. Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy, 33; 101106

Zhao, F., L. Tang, H. Jiang, Y. Mao, W. Song, and H. Chen (2023). Prediction of Heavy Metals Adsorption by Hydrochars and Identification of Critical Factors Using Machine Learning Algorithms. Bioresource Technology, 383; 129223

Zhu, F., Z. Wang, J. Huang, W. Hu, D. Xie, and Y. Qiao (2023). Efficient Adsorption of Ammonia on Activated Carbon from Hydrochar of Pomelo Peel at Room Temperature: Role of Chemical Components in Feedstock. Journal of Cleaner Production, 406; 137076


Neza Rahayu Palapa
Alfan Wijaya
Nur Ahmad
Amri Amri
Risfidian Mohadi
Aldes Lesbani (Primary Contact)
Palapa, N. R., Wijaya, A., Ahmad, N., Amri, A., Mohadi, R., & Lesbani, A. (2023). Activated Hydrochar Prepared from Longan Fruit (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) Peel via Hydrothermal Carbonization-NaOH Activation for Cationic Dyes Removal. Science and Technology Indonesia, 8(3), 461–470.

Article Details

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 > >>