Synthesis and Characterization of ZnO/Cellulose Acetate Composite and its Activity as Antibacterial Agent

Yemima Chellyne Khefanny, Charlena, Sri Sugiarti


Cellulose is an abundant natural polymer that can be applied in various fields. Cellulose has many types and derivatives, one of which is cellulose acetate. Cellulose can be obtained from various natural sources such as kepok banana peel. The a-cellulose content in kepok banana peel is high enough at 94% so that it can be utilized as a cellulose acetate raw material. Modification of cellulose acetate using antibacterial agents is needed, considering that cellulose does not have antibacterial properties. Metal oxide materials such as ZnO nanoparticles are used as antibacterial agents. This study added ZnO nanoparticles to cellulose acetate and tested its antibacterial activity. The characteristics of ZnO were analyzed by UV-Vis, PSA, and FTIR. The characteristics of cellulose acetate and composites were analyzed by FTIR and XRD. Antibacterial activity tests were performed on all samples. The results showed the band gap value of ZnO was 3.37 eV. The average size of ZnO nanoparticle distribution using PSA was 96.23 nm with an average PI value of 0.151. An indicator that the ZnO compound and cellulose acetate have been sucessfully mixed is the absorption band at wave number 488 cm−1. A composite crystal size of 24.14 nm and a crystallinity percentage of 34.05% were found using XRD data. S. aureus bacteria are more inhibited by all evaluated substances antibacterial properties than E. coli germs. ZnO/Cellulose Acetate composite is categorized as strong inhibition, while ZnO nanoparticles are categorized as medium inhibition.


Ahmed, M., M. Abd-Elhamid, A. Sarhan, and A. Hassan (2016). Preparation and Characterization of ZnO Nanoparticles by Simple Precipitation Method. International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology, 4(3); 507–512

Aly, A. A. and M. Ahmed (2021). Nanofibers of Cellulose Acetate Containing ZnO Nanoparticles/Graphene Oxide for Wound Healing Applications. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 598; 120325

Baranwal, J., B. Barse, A. Fais, G. L. Delogu, and A. Kumar (2022). Biopolymer: A Sustainable Material for Food and Medical Applications. Polymers, 14(5); 983

Breijyeh, Z., B. Jubeh, and R. Karaman (2020). Resistance of Gram-Negative Bacteria to Current Antibacterial Agents and Approaches to Resolve It. Molecules, 25(6); 1340

Chauhan, J., N. Shrivastav, A. Dugaya, and D. Pandey (2017). Synthesis and Characterization of Ni and Cu Doped ZnO. MOJ Polymer Science, 1(1); 26–34

Güngör, E. and T. Gungor (2016). Influence of Aluminum Concentration on the Electrical and Optical Properties of ZnO Thin Films. Journal of the Turkish Chemical Society Section A: Chemistry, 3(3); 453–462

Gutul, T., E. Rusu, N. Condur, V. Ursaki, E. Goncearenco, and P. Vlazan (2014). Preparation of Poly (N-Vinylpyrrolidone)-Stabilized ZnO Colloid Nanoparticles. Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, 5(1); 402–406

Herrera-Rivera, R., M. Olvera, and A. Maldonado (2017). Synthesis of ZnO Nanopowders by the Homogeneous Precipitation Method: Use of Taguchi’s Method for Analyzing the Effect of Different Variables. Journal of Nanomaterials, 2017; 1–9

Jiang, S., K. Lin, and M. Cai (2020). ZnO Nanomaterials: Current Advancements in Antibacterial Mechanisms and Applications. Frontiers in Chemistry, 8; 580

Jones, N., B. Ray, K. T. Ranjit, and A. C. Manna (2008). Antibacterial Activity of ZnO Nanoparticle Suspensions on a Broad Spectrum of Microorganisms. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 279(1); 71–76

Kareem, A., M. Al Maamori, and S. N. AL-Thomir (2018). Preparation and Characterization of Antimicrobial PVA/ZnO Nanocomposite for Biomaterial Applications. Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences, 26(2); 286–294

Khandelwal, N., G. Kaur, N. Kumar, and A. Tiwari (2014). Application of Silver Nanoparticles in Viral Inhibition: A New Hope for Antivirals. Digest Journal of Nanomaterials & Biostructures (DJNB), 9(1); 175–186

Koczkur, K. M., S. Mourdikoudis, L. Polavarapu, and S. E. Skrabalak (2015). Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in Nanoparticle Synthesis. Dalton Transactions, 44(41); 17883–17905

Kotresh, M., M. Patil, and S. R. Inamdar (2021). Reaction Temperature Based Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles Using Co-Precipitation Method: Detailed Structural and Optical Characterization. Optik, 243; 167506

Mahamuni, P. P., P. M. Patil, M. J. Dhanavade, M. V. Badiger, P. G. Shadija, A. C. Lokhande, and R. A. Bohara (2019). Synthesis and Characterization of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles by Using Polyol Chemistry for their Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activity. Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports, 17; 71–80

Maślana, K., A. Żywicka, K. Wenelska, and E. Mijowska (2021). Boosting of Antibacterial Performance of Cellulose Based Paper Sheet Via TiO2 Nanoparticles. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22(3); 1451

Mudalige, T., H. Qu, D. Van Haute, S. M. Ansar, A. Paredes, and T. Ingle (2019). Characterization of Nanomaterials: Tools and Challenges. Nanomaterials for Food Applications; 313–353

Padmalaya, G., B. Sreeja, P. Dinesh Kumar, S. Radha, V. Poornima, M. Arivanandan, S. Shrestha, and T. Uma (2019). A Facile Synthesis of Cellulose Acetate Functionalized Zinc Oxide Nanocomposite for Electrochemical Sensing of Cadmium Ions. Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials, 29; 989–999

Rahmatullah, R. W. Putri, M. Rendana, U. Waluyo, and T. Andrianto (2022). Effect of Plasticizer and Concentration on Characteristics of Bioplastic Based on Cellulose Acetate from Kapok (Ceiba pentandra) Fiber. Science and Technology Indonesia, 7(1); 73–83

Safithri, M., S. Indariani, and R. Yuliani (2020). Effect ofMicroencapsulation Techniques on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Functional Beverage Based on Red Betel Leaf Extract (Piper crocatum). Jurnal Kimia Sains Dan Aplikasi, 23(8); 276–282

Singh, K., Nancy, M. Bhattu, G. Singh, N. M. Mubarak, and J. Singh (2023). Light-Absorption-Driven Photocatalysis and Antimicrobial Potential of PVP-Capped Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles. Scientific Reports, 13(1); 13886

Ślusarz, R., M. Szulc, and J. Madaj (2014). Molecular Modeling of Gram-Positive Bacteria Peptidoglycan Layer, Selected Glycopeptide Antibiotics and Vancomycin Derivatives Modified with Sugar Moieties. Carbohydrate Research, 389; 154–164

Sudiarti, T., D. Wahyuningrum, B. Bundjali, and I. M. Arcana (2017). Mechanical Strength and Ionic Conductivity of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes Prepared from Cellulose Acetate-Lithium Perchlorate. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, volume 223. IOP Publishing, page 012052

Vasiljević, Z. Ž., M. P. Dojčinović, J. D. Vujančević, M. Spreitzer, J. Kovač, D. Bartolić, S. Marković, I. Janković-Čaštvan, N. B. Tadić, and M. V. Nikolić (2021). Exploring the Impact of Calcination Parameters on the Crystal Structure, Morphology, and Optical Properties of Electrospun Fe2TiO5 Nanofibers. RSC Advances, 11(51); 32358–32368

Wibowo, A., M. A. Marsudi, M. I. Amal, M. B. Ananda, R. Stephanie, H. Ardy, and L. J. Diguna (2020). ZnO Nanostructured Materials for Emerging Solar Cell Applications. RSC Advances, 10(70); 42838–42859

Yamamoto, O. (2001). Influence of Particle Size on the Antibacterial Activity of Zinc Oxide. International Journal of Inorganic Materials, 3(7); 643–646

Zhao, S. W., C. R. Guo, Y. Z. Hu, Y. R. Guo, and Q. J. Pan (2018). The Preparation and Antibacterial Activity of Cellulose/ZnO Composite: A Review. Open Chemistry, 16(1); 9–20


Yemima Chellyne Khefanny
Charlena (Primary Contact)
Sri Sugiarti
Khefanny, Y. C. ., Charlena, & Sugiarti, S. . (2024). Synthesis and Characterization of ZnO/Cellulose Acetate Composite and its Activity as Antibacterial Agent. Science and Technology Indonesia, 9(2), 215–223.

Article Details

Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.