Catalytic Activity of LDH-TiO2 and LDH-ZnO in Photodegradation of Procion Red

Nova Yuliasari, Amri Amri, Risfidian Mohadi, Elfita Elfita, Aldes Lesbani


Pristine layered double hydroxides (LDHs) which have been modified into LDHs-metal oxide composite were applied as procion red (PR) photodegradation catalysts. The preparation was performed using a low calcination temperature of 300°C. Optimization variations include pH, catalyst weight and catalysis time. The degradation percentages of Mg/Al LDH, Mg/Al-TiO2 and Mg/Al-ZnO were 51.8%, 72.0% and 89.5%, respectively. The percentage of degradation of Zn/Al LDH, Zn/Al-TiO2 and Zn/Al-ZnO were 44.0%, 61.2% and 58.4%, respectively. The study results showed that all composites produced a greater percentage of PR degradation and better reusability than pristine LDH. Mg/Al LDH-based catalysts tend to catalyze PR better than Zn/Al LDH-based catalysts. PR which is an anionic dye when photodegraded using Mg/Al-ZnO tends to be better than Mg/Al-TiO2 meanwhile Zn/Al-TiO2 and Zn/Al-ZnO have competitive performance.


Almeida, E. and C. R. Corso (2014). Comparative Study of Toxicity of Azo Dye Procion Red MX-5B Following Biosorption and Biodegradation Treatments with the Fungi Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus. Chemosphere, 112; 317–322

Almuminin, A. S., T. Haryati, and T. Mulyono (2017). Synthesis and Characterization Thin Film TiO2 as Degrading Procion Red MX-8B Textile Dye. Jurnal Ilmu Dasar, 17(2); 65–72

Amor, F., A. Diouri, I. Ellouzi, F. Ouanji, and M. Kacimi (2018). High Efficient Photocatalytic Activity of Zn-Al-Ti Layered Double Hydroxides Nanocomposite. MATEC Web of Conferences, 149; 01087

Aoudjit, F., O. Cherifi, and D. Halliche (2019). Simultaneously Efficient Adsorption and Photocatalytic Degradation of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Surfactant by One-pot Synthesized TiO2/Layered Double Hydroxide Materials. Separation Science and Technology, 54(7); 1095 -1105

Aragaw, S. G., G. B. Feysia, N. S. Gultom, D. H. Kuo, H. Abdullah, X. Chen, and O. A. Zelekew (2022). Synthesis of CuAl-Layered Double Hydroxide/MgO2 Nanocomposite Catalyst for the Degradation of Organic Dye Under Dark Condition. Applied Water Science, 12(6); 140

Bera, S. P. and S. Tank (2021). Microbial Degradation of Procion Red by Pseudomonas Stutzeri. Scientific Reports, 11(1); 1–12

Bernard, E., W. J. Zucha, B. Lothenbach, and U. Mäder (2022). Stability of Hydrotalcite (Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxide) in Presence of Different Anions. Cement and Concrete Research, 152; 106674

Bhuvaneswari, K., G. Palanisamy, T. Pazhanivel, T. Maiyalagan, and G. Bharathi (2019). Photodegradation Activity of Nitrogen-rich Graphitic Carbon Nitride Intercalated ZnO\Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxide Ternary Nanocomposites on Methylene Blue Dye. Chemistry Select, 4(11); 2982–2990

Contreras-Ruiz, J., M. Martínez-Gallegos, and E. OrdoñezRegil (2016). Surface Fractal Dimension of Composites TiO2 Hydrotalcite. Materials Characterization, 121; 17–22

Contreras Ruiz, J., S. Martínez Gallegos, J. García Rivas, J. Illescas, J. González Juárez, G. Macedo Miranda, and E. Ordonez Regil (2019). Influence of the Textural Parameters of LDH-TiO2 Composites on Phenol Adsorption and Photodegradation Capacities. International Journal of Photoenergy, 2019; 35–39

Di, G., Z. Zhu, H. Zhang, J. Zhu, H. Lu, W. Zhang, Y. Qiu, L. Zhu, and S. Küppers (2017). Simultaneous Removal of Several Pharmaceuticals and Arsenic on Zn-Fe Mixed Metal Oxides: Combination of Photocatalysis and Adsorption. Chemical Engineering Journal, 328; 141–151

Djeda, R., G. Mailhot, and V. Prevot (2020). Porous Layered Double Hydroxide/TiO2 Photocatalysts for the Photocatalytic Degradation of Orange II. ChemEngineering, 4(2); 39

Dung, N. T., V. D. Thao, and N. N. Huy (2021). Decomposition of Glyphosate in Water by Peroxymonosulfate Activated with CuCoFe-LDH Material. Vietnam Journal of Chemistry, 59(6); 813–822

Elhalil, A., M. Sadiq, M. Abdennouri, Y. Kadmi, L. Favier, and N. Barka (2018). Synthesis of Ba Doped ZnO/Al2O3 Nanocomposite from Layered Double Hydroxide Structure and Their Photocatalytic Activity for the Degradation of Caffeine. Journal of Applied Surfaces and Interfaces, 4(1-3)

Hadnadjev Kostic, M., T. Vulic, R. Marinkovic Neducin, D. Lončarević, J. Dostanić, S. Markov, and D. Jovanović (2017). Photo-induced Properties of Photocatalysts: a Study on the Modified Structural, Optical and Textural Properties of TiO2–ZnAl Layered Double Hydroxide Based Materials. Journal of Cleaner Production, 164; 1–18

Haryati, T., N. Andarini, and S. Mardhiyah (2014). The Effect of Sol Gel Temperature and Solvent Polyethylene Glycol (peg) in ZnO-TiO2 Photocatalyst Act as Degrader of Textile Dyeing Liquid Waste. Alchemy Jurnal Penelitian Kimia, 10(2); 149–156

Hosseini, S. A. and M. Akbari (2016). ZnO/Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxides as a Photocatalytic Bleaching of Methylene Orange-A Black Box Modeling by Artificial Heural Network. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11(3); 299–315

Jaerger, S., D. A. de Ramos Nogueira, D. S. de Oliveira, M. V. Machado, and R. Marangoni (2021). Low Density Polyethylene Nanocomposite Containing Zn/Ti Layered Double Hydroxide. Journal of Research, 10; 35

Ma, C., F. Wang, C. Zhang, Z. Yu, J. Wei, Z. Yang, Y. Li, Z. Li, M. Zhu, and L. Shen (2017). Photocatalytic Decomposition of Congo Red Under Visible Light Irradiation Using MgZnCr TiO2 Layered Double Hydroxide. Chemosphere, 168; 80–90

Narde, S., R. Lanjewar, S. Gadegone, and M. Lanjewar (2017). Photocatalytic Degradation of Azo Dye Congo Red Using Ni0. 6Co0. 4Fe2O4 as Photocatalyst. Der Pharma Chem, 9(7); 115–120

Nazifa, T. H., N. Habba, A. Aris, and T. Hadibarata (2018). Adsorption of Procion Red MX-5B and Crystal Violet Dyes from Aqueous Solution onto Corncob Activated Carbon. Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society, 65(2); 259–270

Phuong, N. T. K., M. w. Beak, B. T. Huy, and Y. I. Lee (2016). Adsorption and Photodegradation Kinetics of Herbicide 2, 4, 5 Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid with MgFeTi Layered Double Hydroxides. Chemosphere, 146; 51–59

Rahman, A. and R. V. S. Pullabhotla (2022). Layered Double Hydroxide Catalysts Preparation, Characterization and Applications for Process Development: An Environmentally Green Approach. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 17(1); 163–193

Ruliza, M., T. Agustina, and R. Mohadi (2018). Impregnation of Activated Carbon TiO2 Composite and Its Application in Photodegradation of Procion Red Synthetic Dye in Aqueous Medium. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 105(1); 012024

Salam, A., T. E. Agustina, and R. Mohadi (2018). Photocatalytic Degradation of Procion Red Synthetic Dye Using ZnO-Zeolite Composites. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 7(8); 54–59

Shaban, M., M. R. Abukhadra, S. S. Ibrahim, and M. G. Shahien (2017). Photocatalytic Degradation and Photo Fenton Oxidation of Congo Red Dye Pollutants in Water Using Natural Chromite Response Surface Optimization. Applied Water Science, 7; 4743–4756

Shaban, M., A. Hamd, R. R. Amin, M. R. Abukhadra, A. A. Khalek, A. A. P. Khan, and A. M. Asiri (2020). Preparation and Characterization of MCM-48/Nickel Oxide Composite as an Efficient and Reusable Catalyst for the Assessment of Photocatalytic Activity. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27; 32670–32682

Shen, X., Z. Zhu, H. Zhang, G. Di, T. Chen, Y. Qiu, and D. Yin (2020). Carbonaceous Composite Materials from Calcination of Azo Dye Adsorbed Layered Double Hydroxide with Enhanced Photocatalytic Efficiency for Removal of Ibuprofen in Water. Environmental Sciences Europe, 32; 1–15

Song, B., Z. Zeng, G. Zeng, J. Gong, R. Xiao, S. Ye, M. Chen, C. Lai, P. Xu, and X. Tang (2019). Powerful Combination of g-C3N4 and LDHs for Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance: a Review of Strategy, Synthesis, and Applications. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 272; 101999

Trujillano, R., C. Nájera, and V. Rives (2020). Activity in the Photodegradation of 4-Nitrophenol of a Zn, Al Hydrotalcite Like Solid and the Derived Alumina Supported ZnO. Catalysts, 10(6); 702

Tzompantzi, F., G. Mendoza Damián, J. Rico, and A. Mantilla (2014). Enhanced Photoactivity for the Phenol Mineralization on ZnAlLa Mixed Oxides Prepared from Calcined LDHs. Catalysis Today, 220; 56–60

Xu, J., H. Deng, J. Song, J. Zhao, L. Zhang, and W. Hou (2017). Synthesis of Hierarchical Flower Like Mg2Al-Cl Layered Double Hydroxide in a Surfactant Free Reverse Microemulsion. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 505; 816–823

Xue, C., Z. Cao, X. Tong, P. Yang, S. Li, X. Chen, D. Liu, and W. Huang (2023). Investigation of CuCoFe-LDH as an Efficient and Stable Catalyst for the Degradation of Acetaminophen in Heterogeneous Electro-Fenton System: Key Operating Parameters, Mechanisms and Pathways. Journal of Environmental Management, 327; 116787

Yan, R. q., G. h. Liu, Q. f. Wang, W. Liu, and C. l. Song (2016). Fast Photodegradation of Malachite Green Using Nano-ZnO on Ceramic MgAl Carbonate Layered Double Hydroxides Support. Chinese Journal of Chemical Physics, 29(2); 241

Yuliasari, N., A. Badri, A. Wijaya, P. Mega, S. Bahar, N. Siregar, and R. Mohadi (2022a). Modification of Mg/Al-LDH Intercalated Metal Oxide (Mg/Al-Ni) to Improve the Performance of Methyl Orange and Methyl Red Dyes Adsorption Process. Science and Technology Indonesia, 7(3); 275–283

Yuliasari, N., R. Mohadi, and A. Lesbani (2022b). Improvement of Congo Red Photodegradation Performance Through Zn/Al-TiO2 and Zn/Al-ZnO Preparation. Science and Technology Indonesia, 7(4); 449–454

Yuliasari, N., R. Mohadi, and A. Lesbani (2022c). Modification of Pristine Layered Double Hydroxide to Form Metal Oxide Composites as an Anionic Dye Photodegradation Catalysts. Communications in Science and Technology, 7(2); 168–174

Yuliasari, N., A. Wijaya, A. Amri, R. Mohadi, E. Elfita, and A. Lesbani (2022d). Application of M2+ (Magnesium, Zinc)/Alumina-Metal Oxide Composites as Photocatalysts for the Degradation of Cationic Dyes. Ecological Engineering & Environmental Technology, 23(4); 125–135

Zarate Morales, J., S. Paredes Carrera, and L. Castro Sotelo (2018). Mixed Oxides of Zn/Al, Zn/Al La and Zn-Mg/Al: Preparation, Characterization and Photocatalytic Activity in Diclofenac Degradation. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química, 17(3); 941–953

Zhao, G., J. Zou, C. Li, J. Yu, X. Jiang, Y. Zheng, W. Hu, and F. Jiao (2018). Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Rhodamine B, Methylene Blue and 4-Nitrophenol Under Visible Light Irradiation Using TiO2/MgZnAl Layered Double Hydroxide. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 29; 7002–7014


Nova Yuliasari
Amri Amri
Risfidian Mohadi
Elfita Elfita
Aldes Lesbani (Primary Contact)
Yuliasari, N., Amri, A., Mohadi, R., Elfita, E., & Lesbani, A. (2023). Catalytic Activity of LDH-TiO2 and LDH-ZnO in Photodegradation of Procion Red. Science and Technology Indonesia, 8(2), 252–258.

Article Details

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 > >>